**2's Complement in C**

2's complement is a mathematical operation used to represent signed integers in binary format. It's a popular method due to its simplicity and efficiency in hardware implementations.

**How 2's Complement Works**

**Negate the number:**Invert all the bits of the number (0s become 1s and 1s become 0s).**Add 1:**Add 1 to the result obtained in step 1.

**Example:**

Let's find the 2's complement of the decimal number -5 in 8 bits.

- Convert 5 to binary: 0000 0101
- Negate the bits: 1111 1010
- Add 1: 1111 1011

Therefore, the 2's complement representation of -5 in 8 bits is 1111 1011.

**Advantages of 2's Complement**

**Simplicity:**The operation is straightforward and easy to implement in hardware.**Efficiency:**Arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division) can be performed directly on 2's complement numbers without requiring special handling for negative numbers.**Uniformity:**Both positive and negative numbers are represented in the same format, simplifying hardware design.

**Using 2's Complement in C**

C uses 2's complement to represent signed integers. You can directly perform arithmetic operations on signed integers without worrying about their representation. However, it's important to be aware of the range of values that can be represented in a given number of bits.

**Example:**

```
int x = -5;
int y = 10;
int sum = x + y;
printf("Sum: %d\n", sum);
```

In this example, the variables `x`

and `y`

are signed integers. The addition operation `x + y`

is performed using 2's complement arithmetic, and the result is correctly calculated.

**Best Practices**

**Understand the range of values:**Be aware of the minimum and maximum values that can be represented in a given number of bits (e.g., 2 bytes for`int`

in most implementations).**Handle overflow and underflow:**If arithmetic operations result in values outside the representable range, you may encounter overflow or underflow errors.**Use appropriate data types:**Choose the correct data type (e.g.,`int`

,`short`

,`long`

) based on the expected range of values.